Dark spots on the face can be frustrating, especially in situations like weddings, parties and other public appearances. Dark spots on the face are mainly caused due to hyperpigmentation of the skin sometimes producing excess melanin that makes a patch of skin appear darker. The following article elaborates on the various causes behind these spots on the face.
Causes of Dark Spots on the Face
Hyperpigmentation occurs when there is a melanin overproduction in certain areas of the skin. This results in flat and darkened patches of the skin that are brown or black in colour.
Types of hyperpigmentation include melasma, or chloasma, freckles (lentigos), and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Freckles are due to the exposure of the skin to the sun. Melasma often affects pregnant women.
However, because it is related to hormones, it can also occur in females on the oral contraceptive pill.
Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation occurs when a skin injury heals and leaves a scar behind. It can be caused by a simple spot eg in acne or from cosmetic procedures like laser treatment and chemical peels.
Sometimes fluctuation in hormones can cause acne on the face. This acne is called hormonal acne and can take the form of blackheads, whiteheads or cysts. Hormonal acne can be caused by influxes of hormones from menopause, menstruation, PCOS and increased androgen levels.
Excess Exposure to Sunlight
Even though the exposure of the skin to sunlight is important for gaining vitamin D, excessive exposure leads to tanning of the skin.
Here the skin becomes darker due to excessive exposure to the UV radiation of the sun. Frequent sun tanning can cause skin cancer and changes in the skin appearance making it look aged and wrinkled.
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